Flourish Trace™ supplies a broad range of trace elements demonstrated to be necessary for proper plant health and growth (see right panel for signs of deficiencies). Trace elements are normally depleted by utilization, oxidation and precipitation. The latter two processes occur more rapidly than with other micronutrients. This makes it important to restore trace elements on a regular basis. Flourish Trace™ may be used alone or in conjunction with Flourish™. Best results are obtained when both are used. DIRECTIONS: Use 1 capful (5 mL) for every 80 L (20 gallons*) twice a week. Signs of trace element deficiencies Boron:Death of stem and root apical meristem, leaves twisted, young tissue most affected Cobalt:used for nitrogen fixation, same as nitrogen deficiency signs (stunted growth) Copper:Young leaves dark green, twisted, wilted, tip remains alive Manganese:Chlorosis of young leaves, with smallest veins remaining green, necrosis between veins Molybdenum:Chlorosis, twisting, death of young leaves Zinc:Reduced leaf size, shortened internodes, chlorosis, spotted leaves, older leaves most affected Nickel: lack of germination or seed formation, required for iron absorption Flourish Trace™ Support Q: Will the recommended dosages of Flourish Trace cause an increase in general water hardness? A: Because the elements are in trace amounts, they should not increase your general hardness. The trace elements in Flourish Trace are either utilized, oxidized or precipitated from solution. Q: Under what circumstances would I use Flourish Trace if I'm already using Flourish? A: Flourish Trace is a supplement based on the National Academy of Sciences findings that certain trace ultra-trace minerals are necessary for development of plant life. These trace ultra-trace minerals are rapidly consumed and depleted through chemical means, some in mere hours. Flourish is an organically based supplement. The use of Flourish Trace will give you a way to dose back these trace ultra-trace minerals without doubling up on the organics found in Flourish. I would use them preferably on alternate days to keep a constant influx of these trace ultra-trace minerals available to your plants. Q: Can I use Flourish Trace daily with Flourish (weekly) and Flourish iron (daily) A: Flourish Trace can be used daily. It is probably not necessary unless you have lush plant growth in your aquarium. If your aquarium is sparsely planted, using this product daily will be wasteful.